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GUATEMALA


Map of Guatemala
GEOGRAPHY

TOTAL AREA: 108,890 sq km (42,042 sq mi)

LAND AREA: 108,430 sq km (41,865 sq mi)

COMPARATIVE AREA: slightly smaller than Tennessee

LAND BOUNDARIES: 1,687 km total; Belize 266 km, El Salvador 203 km, Honduras 256 km, Mexico 962 km

COASTLINE: 400 km

MARITIME CLAIMS: Continental shelf: not specific; Extended economic zone: 200 nm; Territorial sea: 12 nm

DISPUTES: claims Belize, but boundary negotiations are under way

CLIMATE: tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands

TERRAIN: mostly mountains with narrow coastal plains and rolling limestone plateau (Peten)

NATURAL RESOURCES: crude oil, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle

LAND USE: 12% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 12% meadows and pastures; 40% forest and woodland; 32% other; includes 1% irrigated

ENVIRONMENT: numerous volcanoes in mountains, with frequent violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast subject to hurricanes and other tropical storms; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution

DEFORESTATION RATE: -1.9 net annual percent

NOTE: no natural harbors on west coast


PEOPLE

POPULATION, YEAR 1990: 9,197,000

POPULATION, YEAR 2000 (Projected): 11,819,000

POPULATION, YEAR 2020 (Projected): 17,639,000

TOTAL URBAN POPULATION: 3,679,000

URBAN POPULATION: 40%

TOTAL POPULATION GROWTH: 282,348

POPULATION GROWTH: 3.1%

POPULATION DOUBLING TIME: 22.6 years

TOTAL BIRTHS: 364,201

BIRTH RATE: 39.6 births per 1000 persons

TOTAL DEATHS: 81,853

DEATH RATE: 8.9 deaths per 1000 persons

FERTILITY RATE: 5.6 children born per woman

POPULATION UNDER AGE 15: 4,221,000

PERCENT UNDER AGE 15: 45.9%

POPULATION OVER AGE 65: 267,000

PERCENT OVER AGE 65: 2.9%

NET MIGRATION RATE: -3 migrants per 1000 population

LIFE EXPECTANCY: female 65, male 60

MARRIAGES: 38,500

MARRIAGE RATE: 4.8 per 1000 persons

DIVORCES: 1,400

DIVORCE RATE: .2 per 1000 persons

POPULATION DENSITY: 219 persons per sq km

NATIONALITY: noun--Guatemalan(s); adjective--Guatemalan

ETHNIC DIVISIONS: 56% Ladino (mestizo--mixed Indian and European ancestry), 44% Indian

RELIGION: predominantly Roman Catholic; also Protestant, traditional Mayan

LANGUAGE: Spanish, but over 40% of the population speaks an Indian language as a primary tongue (18 Indian dialects, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi)


EDUCATION

LITERACY RATE: 50%

ILLITERATE POPULATION OVER AGE 15: 45%

ILLITERATE FEMALE POPULATION OVER AGE 15: 52.9%

AGES OF COMPULSORY EDUCATION: 7 to 14

EDUCATIONAL EXPENDITURE: 1.8% of GNP

EDUCATIONAL EXPENDITURE: 12.4% of Govt. expenditure

DAILY NEWSPAPERS: 9

DAILY NEWSPAPER CIRCULATION: 203,000

NEWSPRINT CONSUMPTION: 923 kg per 1000 persons

NATIONAL LIBRARIES: 100

SPECIAL LIBRARIES: 16

MUSEUMS AND SITES: 185


HEALTH

ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE: 59% with access

ACCESS TO SAFE WATER: 58% with access

ACCESS TO SAFE WATER, URBAN: 89% with access

CALORIE CONSUMPTION, TOTAL: 2,296 calories per person per day

CALORIE CONSUMPTION, ANIMAL: 189 calories per person per day

CALORIE CONSUMPTION, VEGETABLE: 2,108 calories per person per day

HOSPITAL BEDS: 600 population per bed

PHYSICIANS: 3,544

PHYSICIANS PER CAPITA: 4.7 per 10,000 persons

NURSES: 9,093

NURSES PER CAPITA: 12.1 per 10,000 persons

PHARMACISTS: 411

PHARMACISTS PER CAPITA: 0.5 per 10,000 persons

DENTISTS: 810

DENTISTS PER CAPITA: 1.1 per 10,000 persons

CONTRACEPTION USE: 18% of married women

MATERNAL DEATHS: 236

MATERNAL MORTALITY RATE: 75.6 deaths per 100,000 live births

TOTAL INFANT MORTALITY: 21,488

INFANT MORTALITY RATE: 59 deaths per 1000 births

MEASLES IMMUNIZATION: 27% of immunized under 12 months

DPT: 54% immunized under 12 months

AIDS: 56 Cases reported


GOVERNMENT

LONG-FORM NAME: Republic of Guatemala

TYPE: republic

CAPITAL: Guatemala

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS: 22 departments (departamentos, singular -- departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa

INDEPENDENCE: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

CONSTITUTION: 31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986

LEGAL SYSTEM: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

NATIONAL HOLIDAY: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

EXECUTIVE BRANCH: president, vice president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

LEGISLATIVE BRANCH: unicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)

JUDICIAL BRANCH: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)

LEADERS: Chief of State and Head of Government -- President Ramiro De León Carpio; Vice President Arturo Herbruger.

POLITICAL PARTIES AND LEADERS: Christian Democratic Party (DC), National Centrist Union (UCN), Democratic Union (UD), National Liberation Movement (MLN), National Advancement Party (PAN), Popular Democratic Party (PDP), Solidarity Action Movement (MAS), Guatemalan Republican Front (FRG), New Guatemala Democratic Front (FDNG), Revolutionary Party (PR) in coalition with National Renewal Party (PNR), Progressist Party (PP), Social Democratic Party (PSD), National Authentic Center (CAN), United Anti-Communist Party (PUA), Progress Liberating Party (PLP), Emerging Movement for Harmony (MEC), Democratic Party of National Cooperation (PDCN), Democratic Institutional Party (PID), Nationalist United Front (FUN), Guatemalan Democratic Party (PDG), Others.

SUFFRAGE: universal at age 18, compulsory for literates, voluntary for illiterates

ELECTIONS: Now taking place. After finishing the first round, the candidates of the PAN (Alvaro Arzu) and FRG (Alfonso Portillo)will run again for president in the second round to be held on January, 1996.

OTHER POLITICAL OR PRESSURE GROUPS: Federated Chambers of Commerce and Industry (CACIF), Mutual Support Group (GAM), Unity for Popular and Labor Action (UASP), Agrarian Owners Group (UNAGRO), Committee for Campesino Unity (CUC)

MEMBER OF: CACM, CCC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB -- Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU, IWC -- International Wheat Council, OAS, ODECA, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTATION: Ambassador Rodolfo ROHRMOSER V; Chancery at 2220 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 745-4952 through 4954; there are Guatemalan Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco; US -- Ambassador Thomas F. STROOCK; Embassy at 7-01 Avenida de la Reforma, Zone 10, Guatemala City (mailing address is APO Miami 34024); telephone 502 (2) 31-15-41

FLAG: three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side), white, and light blue with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms includes a green and red quetzal (the national bird) and a scroll bearing the inscription LIBERTAD 15 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821 (the original date of independence from Spain) all superimposed on a pair of crossed rifles and a pair of crossed swords and framed by a wreath

MILITARY BRANCHES: Army, Navy, Air Force

MILITARY MANPOWER: males 15-49, 2,028,875; 1,327,374 fit for military service; 107,251 reach military age (18) annually

DEFENSE EXPENDITURES: 1% of GDP, or $115 million (1990 est.)


ECONOMY

OVERVIEW: The economy is based on agriculture, which accounts for 25% of GDP, employs about 60% of the labor force, and supplies two-thirds of exports. Industry accounts for about 20% of GDP and 15% of the labor force. The economy has reentered a slow-growth phase, but is hampered by political uncertainty. In 1988 the economy grew by 3.7%, the third consecutive year of mild growth. Government economic reforms introduced since 1986 have stabilized exchange rates and have helped to stem inflationary pressures. The inflation rate has dropped from 36.9% in 1986 to 15% in 1989.

GDP: $10.8 billion, per capita $1,185; real growth rate 1.3% (1989 est.)

LABOR FORCE: 2,500,000; 57.0% agriculture, 14.0% manufacturing, 13.0% services, 7.0% commerce, 4.0% construction, 3.0% transport, 0.8% utilities, 0.4% mining (1985)

LABOR FORCE, FEMALES: 15.9% ages 15/64

ORGANIZED LABOR: 8% of labor force (1988 est.)

INFLATION RATE (CONSUMER PRICES): 15% (1989)

UNEMPLOYMENT RATE: 13%, with 30-40% underemployment (1988 est.)

BUDGET: revenues $771 million; expenditures $957 million, including capital expenditures of $188 million (1988)

EXPORTS: $1.02 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities -- coffee 38%, bananas 7%, sugar 7%, cardamom 4%; partners -- US 29%, El Salvador, FRG, Costa Rica, Italy

IMPORTS: $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities -- fuel and petroleum products, machinery, grain, fertilizers, motor vehicles; partners -- US 38%, Mexico, FRG, Japan, El Salvador

EXTERNAL DEBT: $3.0 billion (December 1989 est.)

INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION: growth rate 3.5% (1988 est.)

ELECTRICITY: 807,000 kW capacity; 2,540 million kWh produced, 280 kWh per capita (1989)

INDUSTRIES: sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism

AGRICULTURE: accounts for 25% of GDP; most important sector of economy and contributes two-thirds to export earnings; principal crops -- sugarcane, corn, bananas, coffee, beans, cardamom; livestock -- cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens; food importer

ILLICIT DRUGS: illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug trade; the government has engaged in aerial eradication of opium poppy; transit country for cocaine shipments

AID: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $869 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $7.7 billion

CURRENCY: quetzal (plural -- quetzales); 1 quetzal (Q) = 100 centavos

EXCHANGE RATES: free market quetzales (Q) per US$1 -- 5.181 (March 1991) 3.3913 (January 1990), 2.8261 (1989), 2.6196 (1988), 2.500 (1987), 1.875 (1986), 1.000 (1985); note -- black-market rate 2.800 (May 1989)

FISCAL YEAR: calendar year


MANUFACTURING:

Cigarettes: 2,400,000,000

Sawnwood: 83,000 cubic meters

Paper and Paperboard: 17,000 metric tons

Nitrogen Fertilizer: 10,000 metric tons

Phosphate Fertilizer: 10,000 metric tons

Cement: 790,000 metric tons

Lead: 100 metric tons


ENERGY:

Crude Petroleum: 413,000 metric tons coal equivalent

Motor Gasoline: 172,000 metric tons coal equivalent

Electricity: 216,000 metric tons coal equivalent

Energy Consumption: 197 KWh per capita


AGRICULTURE:

LAND IN AGRICULTURE: 29.7 percent

AGRICULTURAL POPULATION DENSITY: 261 persons per sq km

TOTAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS: 1,270,000

AGRICULTURAL WORKERS: 52.9 percent of work force

AGRICULTURAL IMPORTS: $127,389,000

AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS: $882,070,000

FOOD AND ANIMALS IMPORTED: $80,773,000

FOOD AND ANIMALS EXPORTED: $763,432,000

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS:

Cereal: 1,423,000 metric tons

Wheat: 52,000 metric tons

Rice: 59,000 metric tons

Barley: 1,000 metric tons

Maize (Corn): 1,217,000 metric tons

Potatoes: 69,000 metric tons

Cassavas: 10,000 metric tons

Dry Beans: 86,000 metric tons

Soybeans: 29,000 metric tons

Groundnuts: 2,000 metric tons

Fruits: 769,000 metric tons

Vegetables: 317,000 metric tons

Sugar Cane: 7,000,000 metric tons

Bananas: 470,000 metric tons

Plantains: 55,000 metric tons

Coffee: 162,000 metric tons

Cocoa Beans: 2,000 metric tons

Tobacco: 7,000 metric tons

Cotton: 44,000 metric tons


ANIMALS:

Horses: 112,000

Mules: 38,000

Asses: 9,000

Cattle: 2,140,000

Pigs: 875,000

Sheep: 660,000

Goats: 76,000

Chickens: 15,000,000


ANIMAL PRODUCTS:

Total Meat: 128,000 metric tons

Beef: 57,000 metric tons

Mutton and Lamb: 3,000 metric tons

Pig Meat: 14,000 metric tons

Horse Meat: 2,000 metric tons

Poultry: 52,000 metric tons


DAIRY PRODUCTS:

Cow Milk: 366,000 metric tons

Cheese: 16,103 metric tons

Butter and Ghee: 5,000 metric tons

Dry Milk: 1,750 metric tons


MISCELLANEOUS PRODUCTS:

Fish Catches: 2,100 metric tons

Eggs: 42,800 metric tons

Honey: 3,100 metric tons



AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT:

Agricultural Tractors: 4,140 in use

Harvester-Threshers: 2,950 in use


COMMUNICATIONS

RAILROADS: 870 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track; 780 km government owned, 90 km privately owned

RAIL PASSENGERS: 1,052,000 Passenger-kilometers

RAIL FREIGHT: 495 Ton-kilometers

HIGHWAYS: 26,429 km total; 2,868 km paved, 11,421 km gravel, and 12,140 unimproved

INLAND WATERWAYS: 260 km navigable year round; additional 730 km navigable during high-water season

PIPELINES: crude oil, 275 km

PORTS: Puerto Barrios, Puerto Quetzal, Santo Tomas de Castilla

SHIP CARGO ENTERED: 2,098,000 tons

SHIP CARGO CLEARED: 1,470,000 tons

MERCHANT MARINE: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,129 GRT/6,450 DWT

CIVIL AIR: 10 major transport aircraft

AIRPORTS: 451 total, 391 usable; 11 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 19 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

CIVIL AIR TRAFFIC: 2,600,000 passenger km flown

TELECOMMUNICATIONS: fairly modern network centered in Guatemala _city_; 97,670 telephones; stations--91 AM, no FM, 25 TV, 15 shortwave; connection into Central American Microwave System; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

TELEPHONES: 11 per 1000 persons

TOTAL RADIOS: 550,000

RADIOS: 65 per 1000 persons

TOTAL TELEVISIONS: 315,000

TELEVISIONS: 37 per 1000 persons


TRAVEL

REQUIRED DOCUMENTS: Passport and visa, or tourist card and proof of citizenship required. Tourist card issued by consulate or airline for $1, valid 30 days for single entry, requires proof of U.S. citizenship and photo ID. Visa available from consulate, no charge, valid 5 years, multiple entries, requires passport, 1 application form and photo. Provide SASE for return of passport by mail. Length of stay for the visa and tourist card is determined by immigration authorities upon arrival. For travel by minors and other information contact Embassy of Guatemala, 2220 R St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20008 (202/745-4952-4), or nearest Consulate General: CA (213/482-7676 and 415/781-0118), FL (305/443-4828), IL (312/332-1587), LA (504/525-0013), NY (212/686-3837) or TX (713/953-9531).

HEALTH: Risk of Malaria in lowlands. Tapwater is not potable. Unwashed raw foods and undercooked meats are not safe to eat. Because of altitude, the capital is free of most tropical diseases. Immunizations against hepatitis, typhoid, polio, and tetanus are recommended for extended stays. Health requirements change; check latest information.

U.S. CHAMBER OF COMMERCE: 7a. Av. 14-44, Zona 9, Edif La Galeria, Local 19, [Apartado No. 832], Guatemala City; Tel 31-22-35.

TOURIST OFFICES: Guatemala Tourist Commission, Seventh Ave., 1-7 Centro Civico, Guatemala City; Tel 31-13-33/47. Maya Information Service, 501 Fifth Ave, Ste. 1611, New York, NY 10017; Tel 212- 490-0766.

WEATHER AND CLOTHING: Spring- or summer-weight clothing is needed most of the year; woolens are practical November through February.

TELEPHONE: When direct dialing to Guatemala from the U.S., dial 011 (international access code) + 502 [country code] + (city code) + local number.

TIME: 1 hour behind U.S. Eastern Standard Time, and 6 hours behind Greenwich Mean Time. No daylight savings time.

ELECTRIC CURRENT: 110V, 60-CYCLES, AC

NATIONAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day (Jan 1); Holy Thursday, Holy Friday, and Holy Saturday (variable); Labor Day (May 1); Army Day (Jun 30); Assumption Day (Aug 15); Independence Day (Sep 15); Revolution Day (Oct 20); All Saint's Day (Nov 1); Christmas Day (Dec 25).

TOURIST ARRIVALS: 405,000

TOURIST RECEIPTS: $124,000,000

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS: Guatemala City--Ixchel Textile Museum, Popular Arts and Crafts Museum, Mayan art and artifacts at Archaeological museum, National Palace, archaeological site on edge of city; Antigua--colonial architecture, shopping in native market; Lake Atitlan--boat ride across lake; Chichicastenango--Mayan market, local indigenous costumes; Tikal--ruins of Maya city; Huehuetenango--Maya ruins at Zaculeu.

IMPORTANT!! All requirements/recommendations are subject to change. Be sure to check latest information.
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